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Datura stramonium

Taxonomy
The status of the taxon:
checked
Department: Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Lamiidae
Superorder: Solananae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Datura
The specific epithet: stramonium
Author: L.
Names, synonyms, alternative name of this plant in different countries
Name Status
Datura stramonium L. main title
Jimson weed, thorn apple, stramonium English name
jimsonweed English name
Дурман вонючий synonym
Дурман обыкновенный Russian name
Common Thornapple English name
Jamestown Weed English name
Mad-apple English name
Stramonium English name
Thorn-apple English name

Ecology:

Relationship to the world.:
Light
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Habitat.:
рудеральные, сегетальные факультативные , растения пастбищ и сенокосных угодий, сорняки пропашных культур, огородные и садовые
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Data on environmental scales:

Scale Landolt

Attitude to moisture:
on soils from medium dry to moist
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The acidity of the soil:
in slightly acidic soil, never very sour, but sometimes in neutral and slightly alkaline (pH 4.5 to 7.5)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The richness of the soil mineral nutrition, especially nitrogen compounds:
on rich soils
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The content of humus:
on soils rich in humus, but the plant roots reach the mineral soil
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Mechanical composition and soil structure:
on fine sand, fairly well-aerated soils (particle size of 0.002-0.05 mm)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Illumination:
prosvetova plant (often in full light, but sometimes with some shading)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Temperature:
5
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Continenatlity:
2
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

The Scale Of Tsyganov

Termokhimicheskie scale, from:
boreal/Subboreal
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Termokhimicheskie scale, to:
Mediterranean (60-70 kcal/cm*cm*year)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Continentality of climate, from:
ocean
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Continentality of climate, to:
continental/ultracontinental
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Apolitically aridity-Guidetti, from:
arid (P-E = -800 - 1600 mm/year)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Apolitically aridity-Guidetti to:
humid (P-E = 400-800 mm/year)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Creolisation, from:
pretty harsh winters(mean t of the coldest month -16 to -24)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Karolinamisia to:
very warm winters (mean t of the coldest month from +8 to +16)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Soil moisture, from:
meadow-steppe
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Soil moisture, to:
damp-forest-meadow
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Salt regime of soils, from:
poor soil
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Salt regime of soils, to:
rich soil
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The wealth of soil nitrogen from:
provided enough nitrogen in the soil
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The wealth of the soil nitrogen, to:
nitrogen-rich soils/excessively nitrogen-rich soil
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The acidity of the soil, from:
very acidic soils (pH = 3,5)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The acidity of the soil, to:
slightly alkaline soils (pH=7,2-8,0)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Light-shading from:
open spaces
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Light-shading, to:
semi-open spaces/light woods
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Appearance:

Growth form:
Herbaceous plant
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Maximum height, m:
1
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Life:
Однолетнее
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Flower color:
Белый
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Beginning of flowering:
Май
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Use:

Horticultural classes:
Сорняк
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Medical application:
Drug
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Nutritional value.:
Poisonous
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Poisonous bodies.:
Все растение и семена (ядовитый мед).
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Chemical composition and mechanism of toxic action.:
Содержит тропановые алкалоиды: атропин, гиосциамин, скополамин (см. белена черная).
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The picture of poisoning.:
Отравление наступает чаще при поедании сетчатых семян дурмана (особенно детьми), а также при работе с сырьем (порошок листьев) и при самолечении. У животных (лошади, крупный рогатый скот, гуси) после поедания дурмана (в сене или зеленый корм) может развиваться тяжелая интоксикация.; Основные симптомы: сухость во рту, расстройство глотания, кровавый понос, нарушение функций ЦНС (расстройство ориентации, гиперрефлексия, нарушение краткосрочной памяти, зрачки расширены). У животных — резкое двигательное возбуждение, сменяющееся угнетением.; Однако для ряда групп животных (кролики, крысы, собаки), птиц (голуби, куры, дрозды), некоторых насекомых дурман не является ядовитым.
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
First aid.:
Промывание желудка и слабительные средства.
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Interesting facts:

Review:
Лекарственное (болеутоляющее и спазмолитическое); ядовитый сорняк, засоритель сена.
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Care:

The distance between plants in cm.:
45,72
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Reproduction:

Methods of reproduction:
Семенами весной (яровое)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The time of fruit ripening:
Сентябрь
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The type of planting seeds:
1
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Method of sowing:
2-12 недель при 27°С, недружное прорастание
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The number of weeks before the last frost (planting date as a number of weeks before or after last frost):
-8
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The depth of sowing seeds:
Sprinkle a thin layer of
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The minimum temperature of germination:
10-12
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The optimum temperature for germination:
24-28
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The maximum depth of germination, see:
10-12
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Fecundity, thous. of seeds per plant:
45.5
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Botany:

Monoecious/dioecious:
Monoecious
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Type of ovary:
Верхняя
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Botanical description:
Высокий вильчато-ветвистый однолетник (до 1 м) с большими крупно-выемчатыми листьями, крупными, белыми, воронко-видными цветами (7—12 см), крупными, твердошиповатыми плодами (3—5 см). Все растение с крайне неприятным запахом и горько-соленым вкусом. Цветет: май — сентябрь; созревание плодов: июль — сентябрь.
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Phyllotaxy:
Очерёдное
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Sheet:
Простой
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Stipules:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The list of sources:
1. http://flora-toxin.ru/
2. http://humangarden.ru/myinfo.htm
3. http://identify.plantnet-project.org/species/useful/Datura stramonium L.
4. http://plants.usda.gov/java/introduced?queryParam=comname&sort=comname
5. http://tomclothier.hort.net/page48.html
6. Ботаника. Учебник, Родионова А.С., Скупченко В.Б., Малышева О.Н., Джикович Ю.В.
7. Черепанов, 1995