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Oenothera biennis

Taxonomy
The status of the taxon:
checked
Department: Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Superorder: Myrtanae
Order: Myrtales
Family: Onagraceae
Genus: Oenothera
The specific epithet: biennis
Author: L.
Names, synonyms, alternative name of this plant in different countries
Name Status
common evening primrose English name
Oenothera biennis L. main title
Onagra biennis (L.) Scop. synonym
Энотера двулетняя Russian name
Common Evening-primrose English name
Field Primrose English name
Tree Primrose English name

Ecology:

Relationship to the world.:
Light
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Moisture requirements.:
Mesophyte
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The soil requirements.:
Среднеплодородная
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
During the growing season.:
Весна, Лето, Осень
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Resistance to fires.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Type of plant in the context of consolidation of the soil.:
One crown
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Allelopathy at least one other species.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Nitrogen fixation.:
Нет
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Adapted to coarse soils:
Yes
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Adaptability to soils with a medium texture.:
Yes
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Adaptability to soils with a fine texture.:
Yes
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Resistance to absence of oxygen in the soil.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The ability to recover after a fire.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The minimum number of warm days per year required for the normal development of the plant.:
120
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
pH (Minimum).:
5
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
pH (Maximum).:
7
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The maximum rainfall in cm at home plants.:
50
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The minimum rainfall in cm at home plants.:
139
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Salinity resistance.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The minimum temperature recorded in the homeland of the plant, Celsius.:
-33
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Habitat.:
рудеральные, растения мест отдыха, растения нарушенных местообитаний
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The degree of naturalization.:
Agrofit
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Invasive status.:
transformers
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Data on environmental scales:

Scale Landolt

Attitude to moisture:
on dry soils, avoiding very dry and very wet soil
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The acidity of the soil:
in slightly acidic soil, never very sour, but sometimes in neutral and slightly alkaline (pH 4.5 to 7.5)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The richness of the soil mineral nutrition, especially nitrogen compounds:
on soils from srednebelaya to srednebelaya
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The content of humus:
on soils with medium humus content
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Mechanical composition and soil structure:
on fine sand, fairly well-aerated soils (particle size of 0.002-0.05 mm)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Illumination:
prosvetova plant (often in full light, but sometimes with some shading)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Temperature:
4
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Continenatlity:
3
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

The Scale Of Tsyganov

Termokhimicheskie scale, from:
boreal/Subboreal
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Termokhimicheskie scale, to:
Submediterranean/Mediterranean
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Continentality of climate, from:
ocean
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Continentality of climate, to:
continental
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Apolitically aridity-Guidetti, from:
maturity (R-E -400 - 800 mm/year)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Apolitically aridity-Guidetti to:
humid/argumeny
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Creolisation, from:
pretty harsh winters(mean t of the coldest month -16 to -24)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Karolinamisia to:
warm winters (mean t of the coldest month from 0 to +8)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Soil moisture, from:
by the middle-Prairie
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Soil moisture, to:
wet-forest-meadow
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Salt regime of soils, from:
poor soils
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Salt regime of soils, to:
rich soil
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The wealth of soil nitrogen from:
very poor nitrogen soils
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The wealth of the soil nitrogen, to:
provided enough nitrogen in the soil
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The acidity of the soil, from:
very acidic soils (pH = 3,5)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The acidity of the soil, to:
slightly alkaline soils (pH=7,2-8,0)
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Light-shading from:
open spaces
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Light-shading, to:
light woods
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Appearance:

Growth form:
Herbaceous plant
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The shape of the crown:
Прямостоячая
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The density of the crown:
Плотная
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Maximum height, m:
1
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Life:
Двулетнее
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Flower color:
Жёлтый
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The beauty of the autumn coloration of the foliage:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Decorative flower:
Yes
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Foliage colour:
Зелёный
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The density of the crown in the winter:
Sparse
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The texture of the foliage:
Rough
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The color of the fruit:
Бурый
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Decorative fruit:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Durability:
Менее 100 лет
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The depth of the root system, not less, cm:
25
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Flowering period:
Поздняя весна
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Use:

Horticultural classes:
Сорняк
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Nutritional value.:
Nonpoisonous
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Feed value.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The suitability of the fruit (seeds, berries, etc.) for commercial use.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Use as lumber.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The possibility of obtaining tar.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Use as Telegraph poles.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Use as pulpwood.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Use as veneer or plywood.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Interesting facts:

The ability to resume.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The bloating belly in animal husbandry.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The presence of shoots from dormant buds after removal of the biomass.:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The rate of growth.:
The rapid growth
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Care:

Attitude to pruning:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Reproduction:

Methods of reproduction:
Семенами;
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Method of sowing:
Содержать посевы при 20°C (68°F), Всходы через 2 недели
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Preva shoots:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Fruitage:
Лето
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The end of the fruiting:
Осень
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Long hold on the seeds on the plant after ripening:
Yes
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Makes whether transplant with open root system:
No
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Vigour:
High
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Stratification.:
Нет
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The minimum temperature of germination:
10-12
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The optimum temperature for germination:
28-30
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The maximum depth of germination, see:
4-6
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
Fecundity, thous. of seeds per plant:
40946
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)

Botany:

Type of ovary:
Нижняя
Source: Common. (See Sources tab)
The list of sources:
1. http://humangarden.ru/myinfo.htm
2. http://identify.plantnet-project.org/species/useful/Oenothera biennis L.
3. http://tomclothier.hort.net/page02.html
4. Ботаника. Учебник. Родионова А.С., Скупченко В.Б., Малышева О.Н., Джикович Ю.В.
5. Черепанов, 1995